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Expansion to

Al Haram, Makkah


Client: Ministry of Higher Education, Umm Al Qura University, Foster & Partners, Hijjas

Sector: Buildings

Location: Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Year: 2009 - 2015

Key Services

We provided support to the Ministry of Higher Education during an architectural design competition for suitable designs to expand the existing Holy Mosque. Crowd Dynamics advised on crowd safety and circulation issues in and around the proposed expansion from a technical perspective for each of the proposed options.

Crowd Dynamics have built specialist crowd models to simulate the effects of building changes in Al Haram in Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, modelling the movements of crowds during prayer times and for making Tawaf around the Ka’abah and Sa’e in the Massa building.

Crowd Dynamics has considered the requirements for the building space and tested various design concepts to predict the impacts the changes could have and to suggest solutions to mitigate any adverse impacts to crowds that a design change may have.

Studies of the constraints to ingress to the mosque and proposed extensions have been studied in design competitions to mitigate the risks to large crowds moving through the complex geometry of the extension and plaza spaces, including the effects on other areas of the mosque.  Further to this, other potential constraints were studied such as the ingress and egress of the building at peak prayer times and the capacity for Sa’e during Hajj.

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